A Monitoring of the Persecution in Belarus of People on Religious Grounds During the Political Crisis (UPDATING)

Читать по-русски

This Monitoring includes the cases of faith-related persecution that took place during and as the result of the political crisis in Belarus in 2020-21. This crisis followed silencing political opponents, election fraud and ruthless suppression of protests. It also includes cases of persecution of clergy and prominent public Christian figures even if such persecution was not carried out in relation to specific religious activities like praying, preaching, volunteering, making public statements, conducting religious rites. It also includes cases of persecution within religious communities as a result of expressing an opinion about the political crisis.

Contents:
Persecution within religious organisations
Administrative persecution and government pressure
Persecution of religious communities
Violations of freedom of religion or belief in prisons and detention centres

Persecution within religious organisations

In early August 2020, Artsem Kushner, Head of the Pilgrimage Department of the Babrujsk Diocese of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, was forced to resign by the diocesan administration. This followed the publication of a photo of Kushner wearing a white bracelet — a symbol of free and fair elections — on his Instagram. To register as an official observer at the presidential elections, Kushner collected signatures as required by law. At the polling station, he identified himself as an independent observer by wearing the white bracelet.

On 8 August 2020, on the eve of the main election day, a poster reading “Orthodox Christians are against falsifications, and against humiliating and oppressing people» was distributed on social networks among Orthodox Christians as a spontaneous flashmob. The poster’s authors were Deacon Dzmitry Pavlioukevich and Fr Alexander Kukhta. Subsequently, some priests and church workers who posted the message on their personal social network accounts were forced to disassociate themselves from the campaign. Those requests came both from church authorities (by phone) and from various government agencies. The authorities of one of the Orthodox dioceses requested Elena Mikhalenko, the editor-in-chief of the newspaper Voskreseniye (Resurrection), the publisher of which is the diocese, to withdraw the signature listing her professional position. Consequently, she left only her name on the list.

On 18 August, during a general meeting of St Elisabeth’s Convent (Minsk), Fr Andrey Lemeshonok, the convent’s confessor, made a statement in support of Alexander Lukashenko. He suggested that a secret conspiracy against the Russian Orthodox Church was the reason for the protests. According to the priest, Tikhanouskaya would introduce gay prides and same-sex marriages. In response to parishioners’ objections, Fr Lemeshonok said that he would like everyone in the convent to be like-minded, and whoever does not like it “should not feel obliged to stay… all involved in St Elisabeth’s Convent have one common opinion about the events taking place in Belarus, one unequivocal interpretation”. He did not allow Fr Dmitrii Basalygo, another cleric of the convent, to voice an alternative opinion at the meeting. People who tried to express views alternative to Fr Lemeshonok’s were asked to leave the meeting; many did. Another cleric of the convent, Fr George Glinsky, wrote on his social media that the clergy and parishioners of St Elisabeth’s Convent have various opinions about the political crisis in Belarus. In the months following the general meeting, a significant number of the convent staff were dismissed or forced to resign from their jobs due to their civil views. One of those was a supply management specialist, Vitaly Leonovich. He was dismissed following his speech at the convent’s general meeting. The convent also stopped collaborating in artistic projects with its long-term parishioner, Alexander Zhdanovich, following his arrest and detention on 8 November 2020 (see more in the section on administrative persecution). In his interview to Salidarnasć, Zhdanovich said that as a result of the events of 2020, he “regretted to see that the Church was being used for manipulating consciousness and retaining power by unscrupulous people.” Zhdanovich saw “comfortable Orthodoxy with reading akathists and processions of the cross — which are good in themselves, — but reluctant to see the real, painful things happening around.”

On 14 October 2020, while addressing parishioners at the Cathedral Church in Hrodna, Metropolitan Veniamin expressed a wish that “a secular chant dividing our society — Mahutny Boža (Almighty God) — would not be performed. On 22 November, the leadership of the Lida Diocese prohibited singing the Mahutny Boža hymn; the parish choir of the Christ the Savior Cathedral in Lida was told not to sing the hymn just before the Sunday service. Until then, for more than six years, the hymn was traditionally sung at the Cathedral in Lida at the end of the service when the cross is presented to the faithful for veneration.

On 26 November 2020, following the Prosecutor General’s official warning, Archpriest Sergiy Lepin resigned from his role of Chair of the Synodal Information Department of the Belarusian Orthodox Church. The warning was on 18 November in relation to the priest’s Facebook post where he criticised the authorities’ vandalism of the spontaneous memorial for the murdered Roman Bondarenko. The day before, Lukashenko had encouraged to deal with clergy (see the corresponding section). 69 priests active in ministry appealed to Metropolitan Benjamin in support of Fr Lepin. In solidarity with him, Tatyana Kuznetsova, the Department’s employee, Fr Lepin’s deputy, Archpriest Yevgeny Gromyko, submitted resignations. Kuznetsova was dismissed on 28 December 2020, Gromyko — on 22 December 2020.

On 21 January 2021, priest Alexander Kukhta was dismissed from the Missionary department of the Belarusian Orthodox Church. He was one of the organisers of the spontaneous flash mob, Orthodox Christians are against falsifications, and against humiliating and oppressing people, on 8 August 2020. He participated in the volunteer camp by the Akrescina detention centre and said a memorial service for Roman Bonadrenko on 12 November 2020. He also submitted sureties for Ihar Losik on 20 November 2021. Also, Archpriest Sergiy Timoshenkov, Head of of the Synodal Missionary department of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, was dismissed «due to heavy workload and some other circumstances”. In November 2020, Timoshenkov criticised the meeting of Metropolitan Veniamin with Alexander Lukashenko; he also defended the Mahutny Boža (Almighty God) hymn.

On 8 June 2021, the Synod of the Belarusian Orthodox Church decided to petition His Holiness Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia and the Holy Synod «for the retirement of His Grace Archbishop of Hrodna and Vaŭkavysk Artemy for health reasons.» At an emergency online meeting on 9 June 2021, members of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church considered the petition  and dismissed Archbishop Artemy. This was a forced removal of the diocesan bishop on deliberately false grounds: allegedly «for health reasons.» Archbishop Artemy claimed that he was dismissed «at the behest of the state.» The Christian Vision group issued a statement in which it expressed its “resolute disagreement with the politically motivated forcible removal of Archbishop Artemy and the canonical arbitrariness towards him.» Orthodox believers recorded a video in support of Archbishop Artemy. More than 60 graduates of the faculty of theology of the European Humanities University and the Institute of Theology of the Belarusian State University expressed public support for their mentor.

After the 2020 elections, Archbishop Artemy spoke out against fraud and violence on several occasions: in a statement on 14 August 2020, in a sermon on 16 August 2020, and in a sermon for the Forgiveness Sunday on 14 March 2021. In August 2020, more than 300 people, incl. priests, theologians, intellectuals, active laity, employees of the Belarusian Orthodox Church — wrote a letter of gratitude to Archbishop Artemy. Its copy was also posted to the address of the Exarchate. The Belarusian Orthodox Church attempted to distance itself from the Hrodna Archbishop’s statements. The Synodal Department on Relations of the Church and Society published an explanation, On the Participation of Believers in Social and Political Life, relating to the alleged “multiple and bewildered questions about the words said by Archbishop of Hrodna and Vaŭkavysk Artemy said in the Intercession Cathedral of Hrodna on Sunday, 16 August 2020. The document explained that those words were the expression of Archbishop Artemy’s personal position and reflected exclusively his own view on the ongoing events.» Later, a campaign of persecution was launched against Archbishop Artemy: a collection of signatures for his removal was initiated at the Mother Of God Holy Birth stauropegic (independent of the local bishop) monastery headed by hegumenia Gavriila (Glukhova) in Hrodna; the pro-regime bloggers Yuri Uvarov and Olga Bondareva filmed videos attacking Archbishop Artemy himself and the icons of the new martyrs in the Intercession Cathedral in Hrodna. After a service at the Holy Intercession Cathedral during a visit to the Hrodna diocese on 14 October 2020, Metropolitan Veniamin — in the presence of Archbishop Artemy — announced that singing the Belarusian spiritual hymn, Mahutny Boža, would be “dividing society” and therefore — undesirable. After receiving on 27 November 2020 a letter from the Commissioner for Religious and Ethnic Affairs No. 02-02 / 81 which contained a warning of the Belarusian Orthodox Church about “the absolute obligation of religious organisations to comply with the legislation of the Republic of Belarus”, on 17 December 2020 Metropolitan Veniamin sent a letter to Archbishop Artemy. Metropolitan informed Archbishop Artemy about the warning and instructed him to fulfill those requirements. It is not known whether similar instructions were sent to other Belarusian Orthodox Church bishops.

On 10 June 2021, the Nic and Mike Telegram channel wrote that the leadership of the Belarusian Orthodox Church had passed a list of about 100 “unreliable” clergymen to the 4th Department of the Belarusian KGB.

Following the forcible removal of Archbishop Artemy (Kishchenko), the new Bishop of the Hrodna diocese, Anthony (Daronin), dismissed a number of clergy from their posts. On 19 July 2021, Archpriest George (Yuri) Roy was released of the parish priest responsivities at the Holy Intercession Cathedral in Hrodna «according to the submitted petition». On 20 July he was appointed a parish priest of St. Ioann of Karmianski church in village Kvasoŭka, Hrodna region (decree no. 12). On the same day, Archpriest Anatoly Nenartovich was relieved of his post as secretary of the Hrodna diocese «according to the submitted petition»(decree no. 13). On 22 July 2021, Fr Mikalay Gaiduk was relieved of his post as the parish priest of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker house church of the Bishop’s courtyard in Hrodna and was appointed a regular priest at the same church (decree no. 15).

In the Minsk diocese governed by Metropolitan Veniamin (Tupeko), priests are prohibited from addressing violence and political repression in their sermons. They also are not allowed to use the prayer «for the granting of peace to the people of Belarus» adopted by Metropolitan Pavel (Ponomarev) and recommended for use at “all temples and monasteries” on 15 August 2020. There are facts of a complete prohibition of certain priests from preaching.

The persecution has also reached teachers of seminaries and theological educational institutions. On 30 August 2021, the Academic Council of the Minsk Theological Seminary dismissed Fr Vladislav Bogomolnikov, a Philosophy lecturer. On 19 January 2021, Fr Bogomolnikov went on a hunger strike in solidarity with the political prisoner, journalist Ihar Losik.

At the meeting on 7 September 2021, the Synod of the Belarusian Orthodox Church dismissed Elena Zenkevich from the role of Coordinator and Head of the Association of Charity Sisterhoods of Belarusian Orthodox Church (former Union of Charity Sisterhoods of Belarusian Orthodox Church, a separate structural subdivision of the Belarusian Orthodox Church). This decision is recorded in Journal no. 81 approved by the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church on 24 September 2021. Elena Zenkevich was the founder of the Union and its executive secretary. She is held in high regard in the Orthodox community of Belarus, in acknowledgement of which she was recommended as a representative of the democratic Orthodox movement to the Coordination Council in August-September 2020.

Administrative persecution and government pressure

On 10 August 2020, Fr Eduard Sinkevich SCJ (Pastavy) and Fr Alexander Fedotov SCJ (Hrodna), members of Priests of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic congregation, were tried for the alleged violation of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences (violation of the established procedure for holding a meeting, rally, street procession, demonstration, picketing and other mass events). The former was sentenced to ten days of arrest, the latter to eight days of arrest. They were detained in Baranаvičу on the evening of 9 August while taking a walk. At the same time, mass protests following the election were taking place in the city. Priests did not identify themselves as clergy. On 11 August 2020, the military attacked another priest of the same congregation, Priests of the Sacred Heart, Dzmitry Prystupa SCJ from the Liachavičy parish, while he was driving a car in Baranаvičу. According to the priest, the military repeatedly hit the car. While trying to drive away from them, the car accidentally hit one of them with a mirror inflicting «bodily harm in the form of a bruise on the lower third of the right thigh, as well as physical pain«. Consequently, Prystupa was charged under article 364 “Violence against a police officer” providing up to six years of imprisonment. To avoid the prosecution, the priest left the country. On 13 January 2021, the story was reported by state television. In the report, Dzmitry Prystupa was called a «former priest«, which was untrue, and was accused of «inciting religious hatred«.

On 10 August 2020, a preacher of an evangelical church, Sergiy Melyanets, and his two brothers, Mikalai and Aliaksei, were detained in Minsk while praying for peace in Belarus in their car, parked by the Minsk Concert Hall. Mikalai and Aliaksei were beaten with batons. Sergiy was tortured with an electric taser. An ambulance was called when he started having convulsions and his limbs became numb. The doctor diagnosed a heart attack, tachycardia and mental fog. Sergiy was taken to the hospital, while his brothers were sent to a prison in Žodzina. All three brothers were tried in court. The judge sent the case back for rework. Later, the case was closed due to the end of the limitation period. Sergiy Melyanets described his torture on his own Facebook page, and to the August2020 and Witnesses of Violence projects. At the end of August, Sergiy Melyanets installed window blinds in white-red-white colours in his own house. On 18 December, a protocol was drawn up under part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences: “deliberate holding of an individual picket” that was not authorized by the local authorities, Minsk District Executive Committee. On 16 January, a court hearing took place in the Minsk District Court (judge Victor Shevtsov), at which Melyanets confirmed that he had hung the blinds of the aforementioned colours: “because I like those colours and they reflect my Christian worldview. White symbolizes the holiness that we, believers, receive thanks to the blood shed by Jesus Christ on the cross for our sins.” According to Melyanets, he “pursued, first of all, the goal of demonstrating his Christian worldview.” At the hearing on 21 January Melyanets was fined 870 rubles. The judge expressed doubts about the fact that the combination of white and red colours could be a Christian symbol. Melyanets, who has a degree in theology, argued that such a combination appears in the book of Isaiah: “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red like crimson, they shall become like wool” (Isa 1:18). The judge rejected the interpretation; in his view, the white and red colours in this verse appear separately from each other, and not in combination. On the same day, 21 January 2021, the Directorate for Internal Affairs of the Minsk District Executive Committee sent letters to the educational institutions attended by Sergiy Melyanets’s children. The letters were signed by the Chief of the Public Security Police and Deputy Head of the Directorate for Internal Affairs of the Minsk District Executive Committee, S.L. Udodov. The letters informed the institutions that a protocol against Melyanets had been drawn up under Article 23.34 of the Administrative Offenses Code for participating in an unauthorized mass gathering in Minsk District. They noted that Melyanets “has a large number of children in his care” referring to Melyanets’s seven children. The Directorate instructed the educational institutions to “carry out preventive measures in regard to the named family.” On 2 February, Sergiy Melyanets’s wife received a phone call from the school in Pryvoĺny village attended by the family’s second-oldest son. She was informed that a “social services investigation” had been launched against the family. On the morning of 3 February, staff from the above school and another school, no.144, attended by three of the seven Melyanets children conducted home visits to the family’s home. “An act of examination of the living conditions and education of minors» was drawn up. In the evening of the same day, the family received an official request to appear before the Prevention Council. On the same day, the eldest son, a college student in Minsk, was removed from the last lesson and brought into the Deputy Director for Education and Ideology office. There, he was subjected to intimidation and threats with expulsion from the college — despite his good attainment and behaviour — if new information about his father’s allegedly unlawful behaviour appeared. On 4 February, Melyanets’s second son was summoned to a psychologist at the Pryvoĺny village school where he was subjected to psychological pressure. On 13 February, a Prevention Council hearing was held to deliberate whether there was sufficient evidence for recognizing Melyanets’s large family as being in a socially dangerous situation; the affirmative decision could have led to the removal of the children from the family. The Council unequivocally agreed that there were no reasons to doubt the family’s sound welfare situation, and all the “preventive measures» against the family should have been dropped. Sergiy Melyanets is awaiting his complaint against the decision of the Minsk District Court to impose an administrative penalty for the “blinds case” to be reviewed by a higher court, the Minsk Regional Court. The complaint was filed on 2 February, and the hearing is to take place on 23 February.

On 27 August, Taras Telkovsky, a pastor of the Trinity Evangelical Church, Minsk, and a group of believers went to the Orthodox Cathedral. With protesters, the group walked towards St Simon and St Helena Roman Catholic Church (Red Church). Telkovsky read psalms, prayed for Belarus and the release of political prisoners. He was detained by the riot police. The court fined the pastor 810 rubles under article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

On 27 August 2020, Vladimir Mayorov, a believer of the Evangelical Church, preached to three riot police officers and one plainclothes officer at Plošča Svabody (Freedom Square) in Minsk. Mayorov joined a group of protesters who marched to St Simon and St Helena Roman Catholic Church (Red Church) where he was detained. Judge M.I. Khoma sentenced Mayorov to eight days of arrest.

On 3 September 2020, Nikalay Svinko, pastor of the Evangelical Christian Church in the village of Siniehava (Staradarožski District) was tried under Part 1 of Art. 23.34 of the Administrative Code. On the following day, 4 September, judge Diana Filatova issued a formal warning to the pastor, despite the absence of any evidence of an offense. Indeed, the pastor was standing next to his parishioners during the peaceful protests in Staryja Darohi on 14 and 16 August. He held pastoral conversations with them, encouraged to maintain the peaceful and non-aggressive character of the protests. He considered supporting his parishioners in seeking truth and justice to be his pastoral duty.

On 11 September 2020, another brutal detention of women took place by the Red Church at Plošča Niezaliežnasci (Independence Square) in Minsk. Several women approached the church, one of them carried a placard. Masked riot police blocked their way. Once the women attempted to enter the church, the police began detaining them, including inside of the church. The Christian Vision and Fem Groups of the Coordinating Council issued a joint statement regarding the incident.

On 18 September 2020, the Saviecki District Court in Homieĺ (judge A.N. Mokharev) sentenced Fr Vladimir Drobyshevsky, an Orthodox priest, to ten days of administrative arrest under part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences, “violation of the established procedure for holding an assembly, rally, street procession, demonstration, picketing, or other mass event”. He was punished for standing near the Homieĺ State Technical University on 11 September 2020. He was holding a placard depicting Isaac Newton and his Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction) written both as a sentence and a physics formula. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding the incident. On 28 September, immediately after serving his sentence from 18 September, Fr Vladimir Drobyshevsky was subjected to another court hearing by the same court made of the same people. The priest was sentenced to 15 days of administrative arrest under the same article. He was accused of being present close to his place of living at 12 Savieckaja Street at 14:42 on 6 September, at the time when an unauthorized mass protest was taking place nearby. The Christian Vision Group issued a second statement regarding the persecution of the priest. In total, Fr Vladimir Drobyshevsky spent 25 days in jail continuously. In the jail, his pectoral cross and cassock were taken away from him. Following the arrests, the Investigative Committee continued to intimidate the priest. A father of six, he was forced to leave the country with his family. On 28 December, Archbishop Stefan of Homieĺ and Žlobin issued Decree no. 37/20, “blessing»» … to deprive [Archpriest Vladimir Drobyshevsky]… of the right to wear clerical clothes (cassock, habit, kalimavkion) and the priest’s cross, and give the priestly blessing.”

On 27 September 2020, Larуsa Sautsina protested in Homieĺ. The poster raised above her head read: «Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to render to each man according as his work is!» (Rev. 22:12). The judge of the Central District in Homieĺ, Alesya Osipava, sentenced Sautsina to the fine of 5 basic units. On 26 November, the believer made an unsuccessful attempt to appeal the fine in the regional court. Human rights activist, Leonid Sudalenko, announced his intention to appeal to the UN Human Rights Committee on this matter. Larysa Sautsina explained her motivation to demonstrate with posters with Bible quotes in order to reflect on the events taking place in Belarus.

On 27 September 2020, German Snezhkov, an Old Believer from Homieĺ, was detained for participating in a peaceful protest against the rigged elections in Belarus. On the following day, the court sentenced him to a 14-day arrest under article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences for participating in an unauthorized event. A criminal case was also initiated against him based on part 2 of article 363 of the Criminal Code for resistance to the police associated with the use of violence or with the threat of its use. On the night of 29 September, the police searched in Snezhkovs’ house; it seized laptops and telephones. Snezhkov’s wife, Natalia Snezhkova, was detained. Their two children, Aglaya and Matvey, were placed in an orphanage. A trial took place on the next day, 30 September. Natalya Snezhkova was fined 324 rubles. After the trial, she managed to collect the children from the orphanage. German Snezhkov and Natalya Snezhkova are active parishioners of the Elias Church of Old Believers in Homieĺ. The World Union of Old Believers issued a statement condemning the persecution of Snezhkovs. By the New Year, German Snezhkov managed to join his family in Vilnius, Lithuania.

On 28 and 30 September 2020, the Lida District Court heard a case of an administrative offense by Irena Bernatskaya, a Roman Catholic. On 12 August, Bernatskaya and a group of other members of the Mothers in Prayer community initiated a prayer for Belarus in the format of the Pompeian novena, a rosary prayer lasting 54 days. The prayer took place in front of the Farny Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in Lida, Hrodna Region. When Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz was denied entry to Belarus on 31 August, the prayers for his return to his homeland were also added to the novena. Judge Uladzimir Fyodorovich stated that “praying is legal in Belarus» and dismissed the police claims. The court hearing of the case against Irena Bernatskaya has not been closed, but only suspended until the law enforcement agencies present specific charges. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding the persecution of the believer. On 16 October, the Lida District Court found Irena Bernatskaya guilty of violating the procedure for holding mass events. The court fined Bernatskaya 810 rubles. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement protesting against the imposition of a fine on a believer. On 25 March 2021, Irena Bernatskaya was accused of allegedly inciting hatred and detained under Art. 130 of the Criminal Code. She was held in Prison no. 1 in Minsk. She was recognized as a political prisoner by the Belarusian human rights organisations. On 2 June 2021, it became known that Bernatskaya was expelled from Belarus to Poland.

On 30 September 2020, based on part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences, the Vaŭkavysk District Court (judge Leonard Divnel) issued a warning to Fr Alexandr Bogdan of St Peter and Paul Church in Vaŭkavysk. On September 13th, the Orthodox priest laid flowers by the Bagration Military History Museum in memory of Konstantin Shishmakov, the recently deceased Museum director. Fr Bogdan knew Shishmakov personally. Following the laying of the flowers, the priest and friends went for a walk. According to the court’s decision, the walk was an unauthorised mass event, while the fact that the priest walked in front was treated as leading a march. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding the persecution. Оn 16 October, a second court hearing took place in relation to Fr Alexandr Bogdan of St Peter and Paul Church in Vaŭkavysk. On this occasion, the priest was charged with participation in an unauthorised mass gathering that took place in Vaŭkavysk on 16 August. Fr Bogdan insisted that he had considered the mass event authorised following the announcement by Mikhail Sitko, the Chairperson of the Vaŭkavysk Region Executive Committee, made public on 14 August. The Vaŭkavysk District Court rejected that such permission had been granted. The court issued a second warning based on part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences to Fr Bogdan. His colleagues from the Hrodna and Minsk Dioceses attended the hearing to support the priest. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding the persecution.

On 4 October 2020, before and after the prayer service for Belarus in St Methodius and Cyril Orthodox Church in Vaŭkavysk, Hrodna Region, the police detained about 15 parishioners. Such prayer services were held every Sunday in all churches of the country at the call of the Primate of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Veniamin. No political symbols were used during the prayer service in Vaŭkavysk. At the police station, believers were subjected to questioning and the police searched the content of their phones. They were released without a formal record. The Christian Vision Group released a statement protesting the intimidation of faithful attending a prayer service.

In early October 2020, administrative proceedings based on part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences were launched against spouses, Alexander and Tatiana Tsilindz. They were charged with being part of a group of citizens who, without permission, participated in a prayer for peace in Belarus. On 30 September, clergy of four religious confessions attended the court hearing to support Alexander Tsilindz, a well-known surgeon. The hearing was postponed. On 12 October, Tsilindzs were summoned to the police station where Tatyana Tsilindz was charged with violating Article 10 of the Law “On Mass Events in the Republic of Belarus”, “by public protesting about of the elections of the President of the Republic of Belarus; specifically, [Mrs Tsilindz] was part of an organized group of citizens; she was praying and had an icon hanging on her chest, which violated the established procedure [for mass events]”. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement demanding to end the persecution of the believers. On 30 November, the process against Alexander Tsilindz was terminated due to the statute of limitations.

On 4 October 2020, Marina Bulatovskaya, a Greek Catholic, was tried at the Čyhunačny District court, Viciebsk (judge Alena Tsygankova). She was found guilty under part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences and fined 108 rubles. On 23 September 2020, she was close to a peaceful march in Viciebsk; she was praying a rosary for God’s mercy. She did not violate public order, nor participated in the protest, nor she posed threat to public safety. She did not shout slogans, nor used any symbols. She prayed for the participants of the peaceful march and her friends who were among the protesters. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding this case.

On 21 October 2020, a judge of the Zavodski District Court of Minsk, Anastasia Osipchik, sentenced Andrey Luhin and Alyona Palachanskaya of a Christian music band Laudans to 15 days of administrative arrest under part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. On 20 October, on the local residents’ invitation, Luhin and Palachanskaya gave a small street concert on Anharskaja Street in Minsk. The musicians performed their own songs — Adzinstva (Unity), Ahmień (Рearth), U Sercy Svaboda (Freedom in Heart) — as well as covers of popular Belarusian songs. Several dozens of locals gathered to listen to the band. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement in support of Luhin and Palachanskaya.

On 22 October 2020, the Lieninski District Court in Brest fined Elena Gnauk, a pensioner, 810 rubles. The court decided that on 30 August Gnauk participated in a street protest, thus committing an offense under Article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. According to Gnauk, she did not take part in the protest on 30 August. At the time of the unauthorized march, she went for a walk and then — to the railway station to catch a train. She came across the fenced Plošča Lienina (Lenin Square) with the police in protective ammunition standing behind turnstiles. The protesters were standing on the other side of the fence. Gnauk knelt between the police and protesters and said a prayer for the peaceful resolution of the standoff. Then she went to the railway station. This was the pensioner’s fifth court trial. On 4 October she was sentenced to 15 days of arrest for taking part in a march demanding the release of political prisoners. While Gnauk was held in a temporary detention facility, the court tried her twice on other administrative charges, but both cases were sent back for rework. On 19 October, after 15 days imprisonment, Gnauk was taken to court again. Her case was sent back for rework once again, but Gnauk remained in custody for another three days. Since then, the police detained the pensioner frequently. On the last occasion, on 13 December, she was detained while walking around the city. After being held at the police station for some time, she was released without charges. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding the persecution of Elena Gnauk.

On 25 October 2020, Zmitser Dashkevich, an Evangelical Christian, and Artiom Tkaczuk, a Roman Catholic — both are Christian activists — were detained near the Niamiha underground station in Minsk where a peaceful march was taking place. Both alternately held a placard, Let My People Go!, — an appeal repeated many times in the Book of Exodus where Moses demanded from the Pharaoh to release the chosen people from slavery. Dashkevich and Tkaczuk were expressing their Christian understanding of and attitude to the political crisis in the country. On 26 October 2020, a judge of the Maskoŭski District Court in Minsk, Sergei Katser, found Artiom Tkaczuk guilty of violating part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences and sentenced him to twelve days of administrative arrest. Tkaczuk’s plea for a fine instead of an arrest, due to having two small children — 18 months and four years old — was denied. On 27 October 2020, judge Tatyana Motyl of the same court found Zmitser Dashkevich guilty of violating the same part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. Dashkevich was sentenced to 15 days of administrative arrest. During the court hearing, Dashkevich stated that he had been tortured before the trial: he was placed in solitary confinement and forced to sleep on a concrete floor, and he was denied access to water. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement in support of Artiom Tkaczuk and Zmitser Dashkevich.

On 29 October 2020, Ilya Silchukov, the leading soloist of the National Academic Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theatre, was dismissed after 15 years of impeccable employment experience at the most prestigious Belarusian theatre. Silchukov is a laureate of prestigious international competitions and a scholar of state programs for talented youth. A formal reason for the dismissal was the alleged violation of paragraphs 3 and 47 of the Labor Code. The theatre administration accused the performer of “committing an immoral act incompatible with a professional role”. The likely reasons for the dismissal were: Silchukov’s views on the situation in the country which the performer made public repeatedly; participation in a video of solidarity with persecuted artists; acts of public solidarity at the theatre; and the public performance of the Mahutny Boža hymn on the steps of the Philharmonic Hall in Minsk. He also took part in a music video for Mahutny Boža which went viral. Silchukov is an active member of a Baptist community. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement protesting Ilya Silchukov’s dismissal.

On 8 November 2020, Alexandr Zhdanovich, a well-known Belarusian actor and Orthodox Christian, was detained in Minsk. When Zhdanovich and his friend were near ​​the Galleria shopping mall on Pieramožcaŭ Avenue, 15 riot police minivans were parked nearby; many policemen were standing on the pavement. Passing them by, Zhdanovich took a wooden cross from his bag and started blessing them with the cross and reading prayers. When Zhdanovich heard one of the policemen shouting obscenely at a woman, he approached the policemen and, while holding the cross, politely asked him to stop. Zhdanovich was brutally detained: his arms were twisted and he was carried to a minivan. On 11 November, Zhdanovich was found guilty of violating part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. He was sentenced to nine days of administrative arrest. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement protesting the arrest.

On 12 November 2020, Fr Viachaslau Barok, a priest of a Roman Catholic parish in Rasony, Viciebsk Region, was summoned by senior investigator K. I. Zubko to the district office of the Investigative Committee “as a witness”. The true reason for the summons was an examination under Article 174 of the Criminal Procedural Code, “decisions following statements about or reports of crime.” The subject matter of the examination was Fr Barok’s YouTube channel which the priest uses for his vlog. Among other topics, the priest frequently discussed the socio-political crisis in Belarus the light of the social teachings of the Catholic Church. The investigator announced that a linguistic examination of the vlog contents and Instagram posts would be initiated. On 1 December 2020, a court hearing of Fr Viachaslau Barok’s charge of violating article 17.10 of the Code of Administrative Offences, “propaganda and (or) public display, production and (or) distribution of Nazi symbols or paraphernalia”, started. Allegedly, Fr Barok committed a crime by reposting on Instagram a work Stop Lukashism! by a well-known artist, Vladimir Tsesler. On 3 December, the court (judge Rada Dominich) sentenced Fr Barok to ten days of arrest. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement protesting the persecution of Fr Viachaslau Barok. On 12 January 2021, Fr Barok received a letter from the Investigative Committee informing that on 4 January 2021 — the day following Pope Francis’ acceptance of Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz’s resignation — the examination of the priest’s activities on social networks was suspended due to “not receiving the results of the examination” (under part 1.2 of article 173(3) of the Criminal Procedural Code). According to the letter,  the reason for the aforementioned examination was to identify the calls «aiming to incite extremism and harming the national security of the Republic of Belarus». On 29 January 2021, Fr Barok was summoned to the Investigative Committee again. He was told that nine new examinations of the eight videos had been initiated. One of the examinations was in relation to reposting Vladimir Tsesler’s work Stop Lukashism!, for which the priest had already been subjected to imprisonment. On 1 July 2021, Fr Viachaslau Barok was summoned to the Rasony district police station on suspicion of violating Article 24.23 of the Code of Administrative Offences initiated by the Haradok police regarding a photograph posted by Fr Barok on his Instagram on 14 June 2021. The photograph was discovered by an employee of the Viciebsk Regional Internal Affairs Department. The photograph attributed to him was taken on the Polish side of the Polish-Belarusian border, near the Bobrowniki border crossing, during a solidarity protest on 12 June 2021. In the photo, the children of Antanina Kanavalava and Siarhei Yarashevich—both have been recognised as political prisoners by the Belarusian human rights organisations—were holding a sign with the words, SOS! My motherland is in great trouble! The children are refugees in Poland; they have to stay with their grandmother there. The photograph was widely published on various media websites, Telegram channels, and social networks as far back as 12 June 2021. It was signed ASh / Belsat. The head of the Rasony district Department for the Protection of Law and Order and for Crime Prevention, major M.G. Perapechkin, informed Fr Barok of the two Haradok prosecutor’s sanctions: to inspect the church, parish hall, and the priest’s house; and to seize all the found equipment and information carriers. During the questioning, Fr Barok’s personal Samsung smartphone was seized. Due to the errors in the church buildings’ addresses in the prosecutor’s papers, the police could not proceed with the examination of the premises. In addition to familiarising with the administrative prosecution materials, Fr Barok was informed of the prosecutor’s formal warning in relation to the extremist materials allegedly posted on the priest’s social networks. The warning was signed by the Viciebsk Region’s first deputy prosecutor, D.A. Shapavalau, on 25 June 2021 and read to Fr Barok by an assistant prosecutor, S.S. Aleshka. Due to the renewed persecutions, Fr Barok had to leave Belarus on Monday, 5 July 2021. The Christian Vision Group published a statement about this case of persecution.

On 15 November 2020, Maksim Kavaliou, a Christian activist and member of the Christian Vision Working Group of the Coordination Council, was detained in Minsk during a peaceful meeting. He went to Plošča Pieramien (Square of Changes) to express his grief, to lit a candle and pray for allegedly murdered Roman Bondarenko. Kavaliou was exercising his right to peaceful assembly and freedom of conscience. On 16 November, a judge of the Maskoŭski District Court of Minsk, Svetlana Bondarenko, found Kavaliou guilty of violating part 1 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences, “violation of the established procedure for holding a meeting, rally, street procession, demonstration, picketing, other mass events.” He was sentenced to 15 days of administrative arrest. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding the persecution.

On 30 November 2020, Fr Vitaly Bystrou, a Greek Catholic priest, was sentenced to ten days of arrest by the Ivacevičy District Court (judge Vasily Avrusevich) for violating article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. According to the priest, on 25 October, “an officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel, approached me and asked which church I belonged to and where I was from. I replied that I was a priest of the Greek Catholic Church, also known as Uniate. He told me that Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk, who at the beginning of the 17th century was an ardent opponent of the church union, is well-known in the city now. I answered that in the same city the union between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches was signed.” Even before Fr Bystrou’s trial and despite the fact that the priest does not belong to the local parish clergy, but only lives in Ivacevičy, the local Žyrovičy Mother of God parish received a formal warning in connection to “the priest’s participation in unauthorized events”. The press office of the Curia of the Apostolic Visitor for the Belarusian Greek Catholics issued a statement of surprise with “the warning to the parish in Ivacevičy for the events that took place in Brest”, and pointed out at the absurdity of punishing a parish for the actions of the priest who does not belong to the clergy of this parish. The statement also expressed regret that the warning was issued to the parish “for the activities of an individual, which reveals the signs of introducing the practice of collective responsibility.”

On 1 December 2020, Fr Sergiy Rezanovich, an Orthodox priest, his wife Lyubov and son Pavel were detained and placed in custody in Brest on suspicion of participating — alongside Mikalai Autukhovich, a well-known political prisoner — in the creation of a terrorist group that set fire to cars and houses of security officials.

On 7 December 2020, Alla Rashchynskaya, a Roman Catholic, was sentenced to ten days of arrest under article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. On 13 November, she came to the Cathedral in Viciebsk to pray for allegedly murdered Roman Bondarenko. She laid flowers, lit a candle and, together with others believers, joined a commemorative chain.

On 8 December 2020, a Greek Catholic priest Aleksey Voronko, a Roman Catholic priest Viktar Zhuk SJ, and a lay believer Aleksey Koryakov, were detained in Viciebsk. They were tried on 9 December. The case based on Article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences was sent for rework. The second hearing took place on Christmas Eve, 24 December. Judge Mikhail Yurchenko issued a warning to all the three accused. About forty people attended the hearing in support of the accused, including Aleg Butkievich, Bishop of Viciebsk, and five other priests.

On 9 December 2020, Barys Khamaida, a 74-year-old Greek Catholic, was standing by the building commonly known in Viciebsk as the Blue House, 30 Lienina Street. He was holding a gonfalon with an embroidered text of the prayer Our Father in Belarusian. A member of staff of the Čyhunačny District Department of Internal Affairs in Viciebsk drew up a protocol for Khamaida’s alleged violation of the procedure for organizing and holding mass events. On 24 December, Khamaida was tried for violating part 3 of article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. The court of the Čyhunačny District of Viciebsk (judge Olga Shapoval) fined him 1,350 rubles. The embroidered gonfalon was made by another Christian, Antanina Pivanos. The original one was confiscated back in 2008 when, on 25 March, Antanina Pivanos and Baris Khamaida were standing by the Blue House in Viciebsk. Pivanos was fined under article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. She appealed to the UN Human Rights Committee, which ruled that the Belarusan state violated the artist’s rights under article 19 paragraph 2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (freedom of expression).

On 3 January 2021, Maria Revutskaya, a 65-year-old Roman Catholic, attended a solemn Mass at the Cathedral of the Blessed Name of the Virgin Mary in Minsk. Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz took part in the Mass. During the Mass, Revutskaya sang in the choir, and after Mass, she went home. As it was raining, Revutskaya held an open umbrella of white and red colours with the word Polska (Poland; white and red are the colours of the Polish flag). By the underground station, she was detained by four plainclothes police officers and taken to the Department of Internal Affairs of Centraĺny District in Minsk. Later, she was transferred to the temporary detention facility on Akrescina Street and brought to the court on the following day. A member of law enforcement services masked under the nickname Ivanov Ivan Ivanovich was called as a witness. He claimed that Revutskaya had allegedly participated in picketing, swung a white-red-white umbrella in her hands, and shouted the Long Live Belarus slogan in Belarusian. Judge D.S.Karsyuk found Revutskaya guilty under article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences and fined her 810 rubles.

On 3 January 2021, the police searched Valancina Kryshtopenka’s house in Akciabrskaja village, Viciebsk Region. Kryshtopenka has the grade one disability (that is, the most debilitating stage according to the Belarusian classification) and lives with her daughter and granddaughter. The search of the premises as part of the administrative investigation based on the charges under Article 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences for one-person picketing in the form of taking photographs. Allegedly, Kryshtopenka was photographed in front of a church and police car. She was holding a banner with a biblical quote, “When the wicked rule, the people groan” (Proverbs 29:2) while covering her face. The photographs were used for the video for Andrey Dementyev’s poem, Power is at War With Its Own People. The homemade banner and two mobile phones — one belonging to Kryshtopenka’s daughter, Svetlana — were seized. On 11 February 2021, judge Mikhail Zubenia of the Viciebsk District Court found Kryshtopenka guilty of an administrative offense and fined her 1160 rubles. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement protesting the persecution of the believer. Around 8 March, Kryshtopenka’s bank account was blocked due to enforcement proceedings for the recovery of a fine. The fine imposed on the retired and disabled person is several times larger than her monthly pension benefit. Consequently, Kryshtopenka was made destitute — unable to pay her bills for utilities and to buy food and medications.

On 21 January 2021, Tatsiana Lasitsa, a graduate of the Orthodox school of bell ringers and a human rights worker from Rečyca, was arrested. She was charged under Article 342 of the Criminal Code (Organization and preparation of actions that grossly violate public order, or active participation in them). On 3 September, a closed trial began in the court of the Centraĺny district of Homieĺ (judge Syarhei Salouski). Lasitsa is tried alongside other workers of the Homieĺ branch of the human rights organization Viasna, Leanid Sudalenka and Maria Tarasenka.

On 26 February 2021, the trial of Andrei Levaniuk took place in the Maskoŭski District Court of Brest. He was tried under Art. 23.34 of the Administrative Code for picketing by drawing the graffiti “But deliver us from evil” on the facade of a residential building. On the same building, other inscriptions of various content had already been left by other people. Levaniuk drew a quote from the Our Father prayer on 13 February. He appealed against the verdict to find him guilty of an administrative offence. Instead of acquittal, the verdict was dropped, and the case was reclassified as a criminal offence under Article 341 of the Criminal Code (Desecration of buildings and structures and damage to property). Investigators estimated that Levaniuk had caused the 51.99 BYN damage to the property maintaining organisation. On 7 April, the judge of the Maskoŭski District Court of Brest, Vera Filonik, sentenced Andrei Levaniuk to one month of imprisonment. The public prosecutor was the assistant to the City Prosecutor, Manko.

On 4 May 2021, the son of an Orthodox priest from Hrodna, Andrei Ausiyevich, was taken into custody. He was a full-time carer for his disabled father who had previously suffered a stroke and heart attack and had a tracheostomy installed. The investigation against Ausiyevich was launched on 20 December 2020 under Art. 369 of the Criminal Code (Insulting an official). His home was searched, and his computer and telephone were confiscated. On 5 May 2021, a video with Ausiyevich was published in the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ Telegram channel. According to the video, he was suspected of sending offensive comments to the district inspector in the Telegram messenger. Ausiyevich was also charged with threatening comments to riot police officers (art. 364) in the same messenger. His trial began on 3 September 2021, the case is being considered by the Hrodna Regional Court judge, Nikolai Rachinsky, the state prosecutor is Lyudmila Gerasimenko.

On 6 August 2021, a philosopher, methodologist, founder of the Flying University and Christian Reformed believer, Uladzimir Matskevich, was arrested. He and his colleagues: Tatsiana Vadalazhskaya, Aksana Shelest and Ulad Vialichka — were subjected to the search. Matskevich has been taken into custody and is held in the detention centre no. 1 in Minsk. He was charged under Art. 342 of the Criminal Code (Organizing actions that grossly violate public order). The 65-year-old philosopher was also classed as “prone to extremism”. He was kept in solitary confinement for a long time. The Christian Vision group issued a statement regarding the criminal prosecution of Uladzimir Matskevich.

On 8 July 2021, a journalist of a Catholic newspaper, Katalicki Viesnik, Dzmitry Lupach (Hlybokaje, Viciebsk Region) was detained at the Plisa spa hotel during the regime’s campaign against journalists. His apartment was searched, and a mobile phone was confiscated. On 11 July, Lupach was released, however, he remained a suspect in a criminal case based on Art. 130 part 1 of the Criminal Code (Incitement to racial, national, religious, or other social hatred or discord). According to the head of the Hlybokaje District Department of the Investigative Committee, Lieutenant Colonel S.M. Plikata, Lupach using the nickname ZmagarBNR allegedly posted a video clip containing calls for violence against the law enforcement forces in the Hlybokaje for Life Telegram chat. The chat has nearly a thousand members. The homes of the other five persons suspected in the same case were also searched.

On 8 July 2021, an evangelical Christian and civic activist from Baraŭliany (Minsk Region), Maria Vaitovich, was detained on suspicion of an “act of terrorism”. In December 2020, she took part in the Voice of the Church project for reflecting on the Christian understanding of the political crisis in Belarus. Vaitovich’s husband is a deacon of the Evangelical church; they have three adopted children. Vaitovich’s house was searched by police and KGB officers. They seized computer equipment, flags, and ethnic costumes. Vaitovich was released on 16 July.

On 8 July 2021, a search took place in the house of Aleksandr Zaretski, pastor of the Evangelical Church in Novalukoml (Čašnicki District, Viciebs Region). After signing a letter against violence, Zaretski was invited to the local police station and to the district’s Head of Ideology department. Currently, Zaretski’s status is one of a witness; he is under a nondisclosure agreement.

On 12 July 2021, a Roman Catholic activist and the father of ten children, Ruslan Tashtimirov, was detained. He was the founder of a Viber-based prayer group, The Scripture for Motherland. The KGB broke into his apartment and searched it. They seized flags, a computer, and a telephone. After interrogation, Tashtimirov was released. He was forced to sign a nondisclosure agreement.

On 7 September 2021, a search took place in the house of Dionisy Korostelev, a priest of the Ikon of the Mother of God Joy of All Who Sorrow parish in Minsk. The priest is under a nondisclosure agreement.

On 29 September 2021, GUBOPiK (Ministry of Internal Affair’s Department for Combating Organised Crime and Corruption) officers broke into the apartment of the former head of St Michael’s Orthodox parish in Minsk, bard Anatol Kudlasievich. They apprehended the owner and conducted a search by order from 7 September as part of a criminal investigation the essence of which was not clear to Kudlasievich. During the search, the apartment was ransacked. Kudlasievich was forced to be photographed with symbols of white-red-white colours. Then he was detained, and his laptops and mobile phones were confiscated. A protocol was drawn up under Article 24.23 of the Administrative Code (Unauthorized picketing). The materials enclosed in the case included doctored photographs of Kudlasievich flat’s balcony with a white-red-white flag with the Pahonia coat of arms added in image editing software. Kudlasievich is a disabled person (second group, in the Belarusian classification). On 30 September 2021, he was subjected to an administrative penalty in the form of a fine of 2,900 rubles (100 basic units). In spring 2021, Kudlasievich was already searched by KGB in the Autukhovich case. On 7 June 2021, during a legal picket for collecting signatures in support of Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya presidential campaign, he was detained and subjected to unlawful ten-day administrative arrest by the Frunzienski District Court in Minsk (judge Andrei Mlechka) under Article 23.34 of the Administrative Code. The arrest warrant was appealed to a higher court and annulled on the basis of Part 2 of Article 6.7 of the Code of Administrative Offenses stating that an administrative arrest cannot be applied to people with disabilities of the first and second groups. Despite this court decision, Kudlasievich was detained to serve the entire term of arrest on 2 August 2020. On 18 August 2020, the Frunzienski district court of Minsk judge, Yulia Bliznyuk, issued a new ruling in the case of an administrative offence; she imposed a penalty on Anatol Kudlasievich in the form of a fine equivalent to 200 US Dollars.

On 1 October 2021, the Homieĺ icon painter, Kanstantyn Prusau, was detained for reposting a video from a YouTube channel earlier recognised as an extremist by the Belarusian authorities. The video was shared with 54 chat participants. The court ignored the fact that 42-year-old Prusau is disabled due to insulin-dependent diabetes and sentenced him to 14 days of administrative arrest.

Persecution of religious communities

On 16 August 2020, Igor Kondratyev, a parish priest of the Greek Catholic parish in Brest, made a speech at the meeting of protesters attended by many thousands of people. He called for the release of detained and severely beaten protesters. On 20 August, following the interviews in which the priest gave a moral and ethical assessment of the situation in the country, Kondratyev was summoned to the prosecutor’s office. He was issued with a written warning for organising unauthorized events. At the same time, the Brest Regional Executive Committee issued a warning to Fr Kondratyev’s parish of St Brothers Apostles Peter and Andrew. The warning threatened to close the parish by court order.

On 22 August 2020, at a pro-government rally in Hrodna, Lukashenko voiced the threats towards religious communities and clergy: «I am surprised with the position of our religious communities. My dear priests, settle down and mind your own business. People should go to churches to pray! Churches are not for politics. People should be for their souls there, as it has always been. Do not follow renegades’ lead. You will be disgraced and ashamed for the position that you, some of you, take now. The government will not be indifferent to that.»

On 23 August 2020, allegedly for technical reasons, the Belarusian National Radio broadcast of the Sunday Mass from the Roman Catholic Archcathedral was cancelled. Until then, it took place every Sunday at 8.15 am. No technical fault was found. Bishop Juryj Kasabucki alleged that the unexpected termination of those radio broadcasts was to intimidate the Roman Catholic Church. The broadcasts have not yet resumed.

On 25 August 2020, the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church dismissed Metropolitan Pavel (Ponomarev) from the post of Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus. Metropolitan Pavel had been the head of the Belarusian Orthodox Church since 25 December 2013. On 11 August, the Metropolitan ‑ following Patriarch of Moscow ‑ congratulated Alexander Lukashenko on his victory in the presidential elections. Later on, he made a number of different statements and actions. In particular, on 14 August, during a conversation with parishioners at the prayer for Belarus in the Minsk Cathedral, he asked for their forgiveness if congratulating Lukashenko had hurt them. On 17 August, Metropolitan Pavel visited hospitalised victims of protests. Consequently, at a meeting of the Synod, Metropolitan Pavel unexpectedly submitted a petition to relieve him from the post of Patriarchal Exarch. Bishop Veniamin (Tupeka) of Barysaŭ­ and Marjina Horka was appointed to this position instead. On 30 August, in his sermon at the farewell liturgy at the Cathedral, Metropolitan Paul mentioned that the change of Exarch was due to the political situation.

On 26 August 2020, during the dispersal of protesters at Plošča Niezaliežnasci (Independence Square) in Minsk, the police blocked the doors of St Simon and St Helena Roman Catholic Church (Red Church), thus creating an obstacle for activities of this religious community. Following the incident, Metropolitan Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz made a statement. On 31 August, the state authorities replaced the locks in the same church without the community’s permission.

On 31 August 2020, despite being a citizen of the Republic of Belarus, Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, the head of the Roman Catholic Church in Belarus, was not allowed back to the country on his way back from Poland. He was told his passport was invalid. Such ban on return to the country is illegal: it violates international agreements (such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, article 12), the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (article 30) and the legislation of the Republic of Belarus (Law no. 49-3 of 20 September 2009 “On the procedure for leaving the Republic of Belarus and entering the Republic of Belarus by citizens of the Republic of Belarus”, article 3). This is a violation of a citizen’s right to return to his own country, as well as a case of intimidation of a religious leader personally and the religious community as a whole. On 4 September, Lukashenko commented on the situation with Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz. He openly accused him and the entire Catholic Church in Belarus of anti-state activities. Presumably, Lukashenko meant such Archbishops’s actions as his call for dialogue on 11 August; an appeal to the state authorities “to start a constructive dialogue with the society, stop the violence and release all innocent citizens detained at peaceful rallies” on 14 August; the meeting — initiated by Archbishop — with the Minister of Internal Affairs, Yuri Karaev, concerning the law enforcement agencies’ unrestricted violence against civilians. After a series of diplomatic steps taken by the Vatican (a visit of the delegation led by Archbishop Paul Richard Gallagher, Secretary for Relations with States of the State Secretariat of the Holy See on 11-14 September 2020; a visit of the Pope’s special envoy, Archbishop Claudio Gugerotti, on 17 December) Archbishop Kondrusiewicz was able to return to Belarus on the Christmas Eve, 24 December 2020. Soon after, on 3 January 2021, on the day of Archbishop Kondrusiewicz’s 75th anniversary, Pope Francis accepted his resignation due to reaching the retirement age (75 years for Catholic bishops). The 75-year-old Kazimierz Wielikosielec, an Auxiliary Bishop of the Pinsk Diocese, was appointed a locum tenensof the Metropolitan See.

On 4 September 2020, Fr Jerzy Wilk‘s permission for religious work was revoked. Fr Wilk was a parish priest of St Archangel Michael Roman Catholic parish in Varapajeva, a village in Pastavy District, Viciebsk Region.

On 13 November 2020, riot police obstructed a public prayer in memory of allegedly murdered Roman Bondarenko by the Three Holy Hierarchs Orthodox Cathedral in Mahilioŭ. Over a hundred people joined a minute of silence in memory of Bondarenko. They set up a memorial with flowers, candles and white and red ribbons. According to the parishioners, the parish priest did not object that the memorial place was organized by the entrance to the Cathedral courtyard. About half an hour later a dozen riot police arrived. They demanded the people leave the pavement as they, according to the police, obstructing the way for passers-by.

On 18 November 2020, the press secretary of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, Fr Sergy Lepin, and Auxiliary Bishop of the Minsk and Mahilioŭ Roman Catholic Archdiocese, Juryj Kasabucki, were summoned to the Prosecutor General’s Office. They received a written warning concerning their Facebook posts criticizing the authorities vandalising the people’s memorial for Roman Bondarenko. This was preceded by Lukashenko’s appeal to curb clergy’s activism. The Prosecutor General’s Office’s warning stated that “certain terms and phrases used in the statements are in a deliberately peremptorily and aggressive mode (such as “mockery of the portraits of the murdered”, “what is this satanic tramping of candles and icons for” and etc.), thus deliberately building up tensions in the society, inciting hatred towards representatives of the state authorities, including law enforcement agencies, and, consequently, enflaming enmity towards those social groups of the population.” On 24 November, Lepin and Kasabucki were summoned to the Investigative Committee and informed of a linguistic examination of their social network posts being carried out. The results of the examination would determine whether a criminal investigation could be initiated.

On 27 November 2020, the Commissioner for Religious and Ethnic Affairs issued a warning no. 02-02/812 to the Belarusian Orthodox Church. It pointed out that the Church had violated article 16 of the Constitution and Article 8 of the Law On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations of the Republic of Belarus. In accordance with article 37 of the same law, repeated violations within a year may lead to the body which registered the religious organization to apply to the court for the liquidation of that organization and, consequently, banning its activities in the Republic of Belarus.

On 7 December 2020, the Enforcement Office of the Central Department of Justice of the Minsk City Executive Committee issued an order to the New Life Full Gospel Church to vacate its premises at 72 Kavaliova Street by 31 December 2020. Failing to fulfill the order,  the church would be evicted forcefully at 11:00 on 5 January 2021. The community announced worship for 10:00 on 5 January. It was attended by nearly 200 church members. At 11:00, bailiffs and representatives of the housing department of Maskoŭski District in Minsk arrived. They were not allowed into the building. The pastor of the church, Vyacheslav Goncharenko, and its administrator, Vitaly Antonchikov, came out to meet the representatives and affirmed that the community would not vacate the building. A protocol of non-compliance with the order was drawn up. Attempts to evict the community from the building started in 2005. In 2012, the enforcement proceedings against the church were stopped, but the litigation resumed in 2013. A new round of conflict began in 2019 in connection with the revised plan for urban development of Sucharava microdistrict. On 17 February 2021, bailiffs and police broke the door with a chainsaw and entered the building. Some of the possessions of the community were sealed up, the rest were removed by the members of the church. The building is controlled by law enforcement agencies. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement about this incident. Since the premises were confiscated, the community has held open-air services in the immediate vicinity. On 27 July 2021, the administration of the Moskouski district of Minsk sent a letter signed by the deputy head of the administration V.N. Kanaplyou to the New Life Church. The letter informed that open-air religious services required permission from the authorities and warned about violations of the law by the community. On 5 August 2021, the Minsk City Executive Committee sent a letter was to the community. It was signed by the deputy chair of the Committee A.N. Tsuran. In the letter, the community was once again notified that according to the reconstruction plan of the Sucharava microdistrict, the church building on 72 Kavaliova was to be demolished. It also reminded of the land tax arrears issued by the state property management company, although the land belonging to church communities is exempt from such tax. On 1 September 2021, the human rights organisation, Forum 18, published a special report on the situation of the New Life church: BELARUS: Administrative, criminal charges for evicted Church’s outdoor worship?

On 27 December 2020, in Hrodna (Baranavičy microdistrict), parishioners of the Augustów Icon of the Mother of God Orthodox parish (parish priest — Timofey Nozdrin) held a children’s party near the church. About 50 children and adults gathered for the family celebration around the Christmas tree. Soon after, the police arrived allegedly following a complaint about a flag used and slogans shouted out. The people who attended the celebration claimed that nothing of the kind had happened there. A protest with flags took place by the road at some distance from the parish celebration; both were not related to each other. On 28 December, a protocol for participation in an unauthorized event was drawn up against one of the participants of the parish celebration. He was detained and placed in a temporary detention facility. At the time of the celebration, his car was parked in front of the church, his identity was established from the car license plate. A parishioner whose first name is Victor claims that he was threatened with arrest if he refuses to sign the protocol and admit guilt. Not willing to spend the New Year and Christmas holidays (7 January in the Belarusian Orthodox Church) away from his family, he admitted culpability in an administrative offense. Victor was fined 135 rubles. At least two other party participants were warned and released without a formal protocol drawn up. Their cars were also parked outside the church.

On 9 February 2021, the Charitable Catholic Society Caritas of the Roman Catholic Minsk and Mahilioŭ Archdiocese was denied permission to receive foreign funding for the project of providing the poor with livestock, plant saplings and food. Permission from the Department for Humanitarian Affairs at the Belarus President Property Management Directorate is mandatory for accepting foreign donations. The Department can make decisions permitting or denying the receipt of foreign aid absolutely arbitrarily, thus making charitable and other public organizations a hostage of its decisions. This refusal to permit receiving foreign assistance by a Catholic organization has signs of intimidation of the Catholic religious community by the state authorities of the Republic of Belarus.

Since March 2021, Roman Catholic parishes throughout the country have been subjected to inspections related to the beginning of the criminal prosecution of the Union of Poles, an NGO. Local prosecutor’s offices and local authorities’ departments for idealogical work — on instruction from prosecutor’s offices — demand from the clergy reports, chatechisation plans other internal information about parish activities.

On 25 June 2021, Lukashenko held the so-called «working meeting with the clergy», at which he spoke out against the autocephaly of the Belarusian Orthodox Church. He stated that nothing less but an «attempt to break up Orthodoxy in Belarus» is taking place, and some unnamed persons «are going the proven way: the announcement of autocephaly [dramatic pause] ‑ letters have been sent to Constantinople, to our patriarch (he told me about that), so we are already seeing this turn.»

In July 2021, the authorities made a decision to liquidate a number of non-governmental organisations, including Christian ones and those working with churches. On 20 July 2021, a search took place at the Centre for Environmental Solutions. With the support of the Synodal Department for Youth of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, the Centre developed the Church and Environmental Protection program in 2014. It was supervised by a theologian, Siarhey Yushkevich, of the Institute of Theology of the Belarusian State University. The programme of cooperation between the Belarusian Orthodox Church and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus was led by the director of the Centre, Evgeniy Lobanov. He was also a leader of the Orthodox youth in Belarus and an executive secretary of the Youth Association of the Belarusian Orthodox Church. As of 23 July 2021, this organisation was included in the list of NGOs the state intended to disband. The Christian Vision Group has issued a statement on this matter. Among several dozen organizations undergoing liquidation, there are two Evangelical Christian: the Centre for Assisting Families and Children and the cultural and educational organisation ASET. On 26 July 2021, the Christian Vision group issued a statement regarding the persecution of those Evangelical Christian organisations.

On 9 August 2021, the pontifical foundation Aid to the Church in Need (ACN) published an interview with the Head of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Belarus, Bishop Aleg Butkievich. Its translation also appeared on the official site of the Roman Catholic Church in Belarus. In this interview, Bishop Butkievich noted » the authorities’ increased control over the activities of some priests and parishes» in relation to the ongoing political crisis.

On 13 August 2021, the news about the detention of Fr Ioann Tyutyunnikov broke out. He is a parish priest of the currently built Transfiguration of the Lord Orthodox parish in Žodzina, as well as a priest at the Redeemer Icon of the Mother of God parish. He is the son of Archpriest Nikolai Tyutyunnikov, the dean of the Žodzina district. According to the Telegram channel Maja Kraina Bielarus, Fr Ioann Tyutyunnikov was detained due to playing Viktor Tsoi’s song Peremen! (Changes!) in his car. The priest was initially arrested for 10 days, however, according to his parishioners, a 5,000 rubles fine was imposed instead later on.

On 7 August 2021, the newspaper of the Minsk Regional Executive Committee, Minskaya Prauda, published a caricature of Catholic priests on its front page. One of the priests has a swastika instead of a pectoral cross, he is holding a white-red-white Belarusian flag under his arm and is performing the Mahutny Boža (Almighty God) hymn. Other priests’ crosses are shown as turning into a swastika too. The author of the caricature was Anton Astrouski. The Christian Vision group adopted a special statement on this incident. “The caricature of Catholic priests with crosses turning into a swastika has signs of deliberate actions aimed at defaming the Roman Catholic Church in Belarus, at forming a negative image of Catholic priests as ‘Nazis’, at inciting religious hatred or discord against Roman Catholic clergy. An important circumstance of the incident is the fact that the caricature was published on the front page in the official publication of the regional sate authority. This suggests  that anti-Catholic attacks sowing hostility against the entire Roman Catholic community — a religious minority in Belarus — have state support”, says the statement.

Anti-Catholics propaganda is common in the Belarusian state media and among the Lukashenko regime representatives. The Media IQ project studying state propaganda published an analysis of anti-Catholic defamatory narratives in March to August 2021 and cited a number of examples.

In the beginning of September 2021, the human rights organisation, Forum 18, which promotes religious freedom around the world, published a report about the increasingly strict control over the organising mass events, restrictions on their advertising and funding. Those restrictions have also affected religious events. Human rights activists noted the cancellation of certain religious and cultural events justified by pandemic-related restrictions, while state-sanctioned mass events continued to be held, often — without observing anti-pandemic measures. The Christian Vision Group translated the article into Russian and published it on its website. At the end of September 2021, Forum 18, published an article about the pressure of the Belarusian regime on believers. The authors focused on the resignation of ‘disloyal’ Orthodox clergy, pressure on the Orthodox Church by the KGB, oppression of Catholics, a ban on the performance of the Mahutny Boža anthem, and an attempt to organise a day of a pro-government prayer, For Belarus. The Christian Vision Group translated the article into Russian and published it on its website.

Violations of freedom of religion or belief in prisons and detention centres

The police behaves particularly violently while detailing believers or the persons perceived to be believers. Vitaly Shatalau, a Roman Catholic, was detained and severely beaten in Mahilioŭ. Shatalau had multiple religious tattoos on his body, incl. a crucifix on his back and an image of St John Paul II on the inside of the elbow. The police officers asked him if he was a believer, and Shatalau gave an affirmative answer. The police beat him particularly severely. Shatalau had to be hospitalised. Andrey Shklenda, a musical instrument master from Pinsk, was severely beaten at the Pinsk city department of Internal Affairs on 10 August 2020. Due to his appearance: a beard, long hair, and the fact that when he was beaten he cried out, Lord, save me! — the police officers assumed Shklenda was a clergyman. They humiliated him on the basis of the assumed priesthood and treated him particularly cruelly.

Imprisoned believers are subjected to torture and treatment degrading their humanity, damaging their health and threatening life. Since 18 March 2021, Olga Zolotar, the mother of five children and an active Catholic believer, has been held under arrest in Minsk SIZO-1. She has been accused under art. 361-1 of the Criminal Code in creating an extremist group. Her lawyer, Andrey Malchanau, testified that Zolotar was tortured by GUBOPiK (Ministry of Internal Affair’s Department for Combating Organised Crime and Corruption) officers; the lawyer saw signs of torture on Zolotar’s body. On 21 May 2021, Vitold Ashurak died under unexplained circumstances in the penal colony IK-17 in Škloŭ. Ashurak was a Roman Catholic believer and activist of the Lida Catholic community. He was serving a five-year sentence passed on 18 January 2021 by the judge of the Lida region, Maxim Filatov, under two articles of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Belarus, 342-1 (Organisation and preparation of actions that grossly violate public order or active participation in them) and 364 (Violence or threat of violence against an Internal Affairs employee). His trial was secret. Ashurak was recognized as a political prisoner on 27 January 2021. Upon release to relatives, Asurak’s body bore multiple signs of trauma. The Christian Vision Group issued a statement regarding his death. On 28 June 2021, Lyudmila Ivashyna, the mother of the Greek Catholic believer and political prisoner, Dzianis Ivashyn, reported that her son had had a heart attack. The incident took place in a standing cell in Prison no. 1 in Hrodna where the Ivashyn was imprisoned under art. 365 of the Criminal Code (Interference in the activities of an employee of the internal affairs bodies). He was detained by the KGB on 12 March 2021.

Orthodox believer Dzmitry Karneyenka from Viciebsk, who served several administrative arrests in total 40 days during September-October 2020 and January-February 2021 according to art. 23.34 (p.1 and p.3) of Administrative Code has witnessed, that every time his cross was taken away, despite his protest, that such a prohibition of wearing an important religious symbol «strongly disturbs his religious feelings». On 16 November 2020, Raman Abramchuk, an Orthodox Christian, made public a routine practice of taking away crosses from detainees: “When [the police officer] cut everything off — indeed, they cut off everything lace- or belt-like and throw it to the feet — I asked to leave with me at least the cross. In response, he cut it off with particular force and threw it to my feet”. Such treatment of religious objects is unacceptable. It constitutes a violation of the right to keep religious objects in places of preliminary detention and while serving a prison sentence: “the objects of worship, if this does not harm the health nor infringes on the rights and legitimate interests of others” (article 25 of the Law On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations). This also constitutes humiliation of the human dignity of the believer for whom a religious object has a sacred meaning.

In addition to illegal confiscation of religious objects, also multiple cases of refusal of religious literature for inmates in pre-trial detention and those serving custodial sentences were recorded in October-December 2020. The Law On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations guarantees the right to have, receive, acquire and use religious literature in such cases. The provisions of article 10 of the Law On the Procedure and Conditions for Keeping Persons in Custody confirm this right. However, neither of these laws were observed by the administration of the Pre-trial Detention Center (SIZO-1, Valadarskaha Street, Minsk). In October 2020, a Roman Catholic activist Artiom Tkaczuk sent Catholic magazines to political prisoners: Maxim Znak, Dzmitry Furmanau and Eduard Palchys; but received the magazines back with a note saying that “newspapers, magazines, crosswords are allowed only by subscription from post offices». In November 2020, Zmitser Dashkevich received back 42 out of 70 copies of the New Testament he had sent to political prisoners in SIZO-1; the accompanying note said that “the persons in custody have the right to use literature from the SIZO library.” The same applies to the inmates serving administrative arrest. On 23 December 2020, Iryna Petrusevich, a Roman Catholic, posted a Christmas card, a wafer and the text of the Christmas Day worship printed out from Catholic.by, an official website of the Roman Catholic Church in Belarus, to her friends serving an administrative arrest in Žodzina and Baranavičy prisons after being sentenced under Art. 23.34 of the Code of Administrative Offences. The inmate in Baranavičy received only a card and wafer, while the inmate in Žodzina received nothing. In January 2021, the Christian Vision Group published its first statement concerning the violation of the right of political prisoners to access religious literature. However, the problem still remains. On the eve of the feast of Easter, those kept arrested in Žodzina were denied to receive Bible, with a pretext, that the arrested had access to the library of the detention centre. However, the amount of the Bibles and is not sufficient and access to the Bible in the Belarusian language is limited. A new Christian Vision Group’s statement was distributed to the heads of the following six Christian confessions in Belarus: Belarusian Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Church in Belarus (incl. the Nunciature), Council of the Evangelical Baptist Christians, Association of the Conservative Churches of the Evangelical Baptist Christians, United Church of Evangelical Christians, Association of Communities of the Full Gospel Christians in Belarus. In March 2021, after the inmates’ complaints about the conditions of their detention, all their writing utensils, paper, scanwords and books, including a prayer book, were taken away from the arrested persons in cell 23 of the Center for Isolation of Offenders on Akrescina Street. Musician Alyaksey Krukousky, an Orthodox believer, was held at the detention centre on Akrescina Street in Minsk, then — at the detention centre in Žodzina between 26 April and 7 May 2021. His administrative arrest under Art. 23.34 coincided with the Passion Week and Easter holiday. During his detention, Krukousky was deprived of all correspondence, including Easter greetings and letters with fragments of the church services’ texts and laminated paper icons. According to the believer, the only religious content on the first channel of the Belarusian state radio, which inmates were forced to listen to in the daytime, was the morning greeting by Metropolitan Veniamin.

The mentioned above Roman Catholic believer, Olga Zolotar, informed of obstacles in receiving a prayer book. On 16 April, political prisoner Irena Bernatskaya’s daughter, Weronika Piuta, shared on Facebook that her mother had not received religious literature posted to her. Only a prayer book was allowed. Bernatskaya was detained on charges of alleged incitement to hatred (Article 130 of the Criminal Code) on 25 March. She is held at detention centre no. 1 in Minsk.

There are obstacles to subscribing to even the religious publications featured in the official Belpochta (state-owned distributor) catalogue. As of 24 May 2021, subscriptions to the Roman Catholic newspaper of the Viciebsk Diocese, Katalicki Vesnik, were not permitted in the prison no. 4 in Mahilioŭ. The prison employees simply deleted the newspaper, as well as the Belorussy i Rynok newspaper, from the catalogue available to inmates. Specifically, Mikita Yemialyianau, a political prisoner held in Mahilioŭ prison, did not manage to subscribe to the newspaper for the second half of 2021. Yemialyianau’s relatives appealed to the prison administration on this matter. In a written response, the head of the prison, D. Eliseenko, informed that the May 2021 issue of the Katalicki Viesnik newspaper was not distributed to the prisoner in accordance with Article 89 Part 2 of the Penal Code: «convicts may not receive, acquire, store, distribute or subscribe to the publications promoting war, incitement to racial, ethnic and religious hatred, violence or cruelty, as well as pornographic publications.» The letter did not specify the kind of prohibited information the May 2021 issue of the newspaper contained.

There are serious obstacles for pastoral visits to believers in detention centres.

Orthodox believer Paval Sieviaryniec was detained on 7 June 2020. Initially, he served several consecutive administrative arrests for 75 days in total. Later, he was transferred to pre-trial detention center no. 1 in Minsk as a suspect under Art. 293 of the Criminal Code (Organization of mass riots). There, he was held until April 2021. Then he was transferred to the investigative prison no. 4 in Mahilioŭ. During his stay in pre-trial detention center no. 1, Sieviaryniec made at least five written requests for a pastoral visit by an Orthodox priest. The prisoner’s wife, Volha Sieviaryniec asked for the same three times. Clergy and activists of religious organisations also petitioned for the visit permission on Paval Sieviaryniec’s behalf. For nine months, a pastoral visit was not permitted even once.

Mentioned above Irena Bernatskaya, a well-known Roman Catholic from Lida and political prisoner, held at the detention centre no. 1 in Minsk, requested a pastoral visit by a priest at least on two occasions. According to the Facebook post of her daughter, Weronika Piuta, the requests were turned down. Prison administration justifies their refusals by the unfavourable Covid-related epidemiological situation. Previously, Bernatskaya had been fined for organising a prayer in front of the Farny Church in Lida. The Christian Vision Group published two statements (here and here) protesting against the persecution of the believer.

At the same detention centre no. 1, the above-mentioned Olga Zolotar, a Roman Catholic believer, requested pastoral visits by a priest on several occasions. All requests have been rejected. 70 Catholic priests from Belarus submitted written petitions to the investigative committee asking to end Zolotar’s criminal prosecution. Two priests, including Zolotar’s parish priest, Fr Alexandr Famianych, submitted sureties for changing the measure of her restraint. On 2 June 2021, the Apostolic Nuncio in Belarus, Archbishop Ante Jozić, made a pastoral visit to Zolotar in the pre-trial detention center.

On 4 May 2021, the Christian Vision group published a statement regarding the obstacles to pastoral visits experienced by Paval Sieviaryniec, Irena Bernatskaya and Olga Zolotar. On 5 May 2021, the group called on the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Belarus and the Apostolic Nunciature in the Republic of Belarus to take steps for resolving the current situation with regard to the detained Catholic women.

A serious problem is the obstruction of religious life for convicts in prisons.

Alena Maushuk, an Orthodox believer sentenced to six years in a general regime colony as part of the so-called Pinsk case and serving the sentence in the colony no. 24 in Zarečča (Rečyca district, Homieĺ region), made requests for meeting with a priest. In a letter to Maushuk, Archpriest Pyotr Prakaptsou (Homieĺ diocese of the Belarusian Orthodox Church) advised her of an Orthodox service taking place 25 August 2021 and the possibility of a pastoral conversation or confession with a priest. The colony administration, however, prevented the political prisoner from taking part in that service. Yuliya Kashaverava, a nurse from Vitebsk who served her sentence in colony no. 4 in Homieĺ and was released on 16 September 2021 after being pardoned, reported that this problem has a systemic character. According to Kashaverava, political prisoners are not allowed to visit «neither activity clubs, nor church, nor sports facilities, nor places of study.»

Political prisoners are not allowed to participate in farewell ceremonies (funerals) of their deceased family members. Paval Sieviaryniec serving a sentence in correction facility no. 17 in Škloŭ could not attend the funeral of his father, Kanstantyn Sieviaryniec, who died on 1 October 2021 from coronavirus. On the eve of the funeral, the Christian Vision Group appealed to the heads of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches in Belarus, and to the bishops of the dioceses in the Mahilioŭ region where the Škloŭ correction facility is located, as well as to the Apostolic Nuncio, Ante Jozić, with a request to petition the Department for the Execution of Punishments for the permission for Paval Sieviaryniec to attend his late father’s funeral.

On 16 July 2021, the human rights organisation Forum 18 published a review of the violations of the rights of detainees, arrested and imprisoned related to freedom of religion or belief. It noted that the refusal to permit pastoral visits and access to religious literature for political prisoners contradicts both Belarusian legislation and the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (known as the Mandela Rules).